Celiac Antibody Panel
Available for Serum only
Celiac disease, CD, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, or idiopathic sprue, is a hereditary response to gliadin. Gliadin is a protein fraction of the larger gluten fraction present in the wheat grain. Similar protein fractions are found in rye, barley & triticale.
The immune reaction to the gluten protein in the gut sets off an inflammatory state that may cause diarrhea, abdominal cramping, distension, flatulence, weight loss, fatigue and malaise. Untreated CD may lead to vitamin and mineral deficiencies, osteoporosis, arthralgias, dermatitis herpetiformis, depression, irritability and impaired scholastic performance in children. There is a considerable morbidity associated with CD due to the chronic gastrointestinal complaints and resulting malabsorption. Long-term complications include increased risk of certain malignancies especially of the small bowel but may manifest elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract.
Celiac disease is more common than originally thought possibly affecting as many as 3 million Americans (roughly 1% of the U.S population); in children alone, between 2.5 and 15 years of age, the prevalence of CD in the general population is approximately 1:300 to 1:80 children. These numbers suggest that the disease is widely under diagnosed.
In infants, adults or the elderly, recognition of the disease may occur at any age. Those at increased risk include first & second degree relatives of people with CD, those with a pre-existing autoimmune condition (i.e.: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, Sjogren’s syndrome), underlying liver disease, and individuals with selective IgA deficiency, to name a few.
US BioTek Laboratories’ Celiac Antibody Panel is a quantitative analysis utilizing the INOVA QUANTA Flash® CIA immunoassay. This test measures for serum tissue transglutaminase (tTG) IgA & IgG, in addition to IgA and IgG antibodies specific for deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP).
Tissue transglutaminase IgA is a highly sensitive (94%) and specific (98%) marker for untreated celiac disease in an IgA competent individual.
Not all patients with celiac disease are positive for tTG IgA autoantibodies or DGP IgA antibodies. A negative result in an untreated suspect patient may be explained by selective IgA deficiency, a relatively frequent finding in this population. The presence of tTG IgG autoantibodies and DGP IgG antibodies can therefore aid in the patient assessment.
Anti-Gliadin IgA and Anti-Gliadin IgG are useful markers to monitor compliance to a gluten-free diet.
Confirmation of celiac disease requires small bowel biopsies demonstrating immune-mediated villous atrophy in addition to resolution of symptoms following the introduction and maintenance of a strict gluten-free diet.